Business Laws and Business Correspondence and Reporting (CA Paper-2) CA Foundation



To develop an understanding of significant provisions of select business laws and acquire the ability to address basic application-oriented issues.

1. The Indian Contract Act, 1872:
An overview of Sections 1 to 75 covering the general nature of contract, consideration, other essential elements of a valid contract, performance of contract,breach of contract, Contingent and Quasi Contract.
2. The Sale of Goods Act, 1930:
Formation of the contract of sale, Conditions and Warranties, Transfer of ownership and delivery of goods, Unpaid seller and his rights.
3. The Indian Partnership Act, 1932:
General Nature of Partnership, Rights and duties of partners, Reconstitution of firms, Registration and dissolution of a firm.
4. The Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008:
Introduction- covering nature and scope, Essential features, characteristics of LLP, Incorporation and differences with other forms of organizations.
5. The Companies Act, 2013 :
Essential features of company, corporate veil theory, Classes of companies, types of share capital, Incorporation of company, Memorandum of Association, Articles of Association, Doctrine of Indoor Management
Note: If new legislations are enacted in place of the existing legislations, the syllabus would include the corresponding provisions of such new legislations with effect from dates notified by the Institute.

To acquire and develop good communication skills requisite for business correspondence and reporting.

Part – I: Communication
 1. Communication
 (i) Types
 (ii) Directions
 (iii) Network
 (iv) Process
 (v) Problems
 (vi) Barriers
 (vii) Types of Communication
 a) Interpersonal Skills
 b) Listening Skills
 c) Emotional Intelligence
 (viii) Sample Questions with Answers
 (ix) Exercises.

Part – II : Sentence Types and Word Power
 2. Sentence Types (Direct-Indirect, Active -Passive Speech)
(i) Sentence: Definition
(ii) Classification of sentence based on connotation
a) Assertive sentences
b) Interrogative sentences
c) Imperative sentences
d) Exclamatory sentences
e) Optative sentences
(iii) Sentence Structure
a) Subject and Predicate
b) Verb (Auxiliary, Finite)
c) Object (Direct, Indirect)
d) Complement
e) Adjunct or Adverbial
f) Clause Structure
g) Types of Clauses - Independent clauses - Dependent clauses - Relative or noun clauses
(iv) Types of sentences
a) Simple sentence
b) Compound sentence
c) Complex sentence
d) Compound-complex sentence
(v) Direct-Indirect Speech
 a) Introduction
b) Procedure for converting Direct speech into Indirect speech
 - Rules for converting Direct speech into Indirect speech
 - Change in pronouns
 - Change in tenses
 - Change in modals
 - Changes for Imperative sentences
 - Changes for Exclamatory sentences
 - Changes for Interrogative sentences
 - Punctuation in Direct speech
c) Rules for converting Indirect speech into Direct speech
(vi) Active Passive Voice: Introduction
 a) Usage : Active vs. passive voice
 b) Reasons for using Passive voice
 c) Changing Passive voice to Active voice
 d) Changing Active voice to Passive voice
 e) Suggestions for using Active and Passive voice
(vii) Verbs Voice Active or passive
(viii) Exercises
3. Vocabulary Root Words, Synonyms, Antonyms, Prefixes, Suffixes), Phrasal verbs, Collocations and Idioms.
(i) Introduction
(ii) Significance of improving vocabulary
(iii) How to improve vocabulary
(iv) Root words
(v) Synonyms and Antonyms
(vi) Words formed by using Prefixes
(vii) Words formed by using Suffixes
(viii) Phrasal verbs
(ix) Collocations
(x) Idioms
(xi) Exercises P

Part – III : Comprehension Passages and Note Making
4. Comprehension Passages
(i) Introduction to Comprehension Passages
(ii) Points to ponder
(iii) Sample Passages with answers
(iv) Exercises
5. Note Making
(i) Introduction to Note Making
(ii) Significance of Note Making
(iii) Detailed Format Heading(Title)
a) Sub-heading
b) Indentation
c) Points
d) Use of abbreviations
e) Summary
f) Content
g) Expression
(iv) Steps to Comprehend and summarize text
(v) Helpful Hints
(vi) Sample Passages with Notes
(vii) Exercises

Part – IV : Developing Writing Skills
6. Introduction to Basic Writing
 (i) Introduction
(ii) Process of writing
(iii) Styles of Writing
(iv) Significance of writing skills for students
(v) Writing Conventions
(vi) Characteristics of good writing
(vii) Do’s and Don’ts of good writing
 7. Précis Writing
(i) What is Précis writing?
(ii) Features of good Précis writing
(iii) How to write a Précis
(iv) Do’s and Don’ts of Précis writing
(v) Examples (Passages with Précis)
(vi) Exercises
8. Article Writing
(i) What is an Article?
(ii) Essential elements of Article Writing
(iii) Detailed Format
a) Title
b) By- Writer’s Name
c) Body - Introduction - Main Idea-Support - Conclusion
d) Sample Articles
e) Exercises
9. Report Writing
(i) What is a Report?
(ii) Essential elements of Report Writing
(iii) Kinds of Reports
 a) Reporting for a Meeting/Assembly
 b) Reporting for a Newspaper
 c) Reporting for a Magazine
(iv) Detailed Format for (iii) above
a) Title
b) By- Writer’s Name
c) Place, Date
d) Body
 - What
 - When
 - Where
 - Who
 - How
e) Tips and Conventions of Report Writing
f) Sample Reports
g) Exercises
10. Writing Formal Letters
(i) Types of Letters
  a) Circulars
  b) Complaints
  c) Memos
  d) Promotional Content 
  e) Sales
  f) Recovery/Remittances
(ii) Detailed format for (i) above
  a) Date
  b) Salutation
  c) Subject
  d) Body of the letter
  - First paragraph
  - Second paragraph
  e) Complimentary Closure
(iii) Points to Remember
(iv) Sample Letters
(v) Exercises
11. Writing Formal Mails
(i) How to Write a Formal Mail?
(ii) Writing Effective Mails
(iii) Essential elements of Mails
  a) Subject line
  b) Formal Greetings
  c) Target Audience(Reader)
  d) Clarity and Conciseness
  e) Formal Closing
  f) Proof read
  g) Feedback
(iv) Tips and Conventions of Mails
(v) Sample Mails
(vi) Exercises
12. Resume Writing
(i) Essential Elements of Resume
  a) Name and contact details
  b) Objective Summary
  c) Academic Qualifications and Achievements
  d) Co-curricular Achievements
  e) Training Programs attended/completed
  f) Strengths
  g) Interests/Hobbies
  h) Declaration
  i) Signature
(ii) Resume Writing Tips and Conventions
(iii) Sample Resumes
(iv) Exercises
13. Meetings 
(i) Notice 
(ii) Agenda 
(iii) Drafting minutes 
(iv) Action Taken Report